effects of deforestation wikipedia
 The process is usually encouraged by governments because they want it to lead to a decrease in carbon dioxide and because it increases the aesthetics of the area. , In the case of the Bac Kan province in Vietnam, researchers came up with systems to encourage leaving forests intact while also meeting international, national, and individual investments successfully. The loss of tree cover has a number of negative effects on the planet.  Unfortunately, since forests are often cleared by fire such as in slash and burn agriculture, the combustion process of wood release huge amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Forests play host to a wide spectrum of wildlife. , The primary goal of afforestation projects in Japan is to develop the forest structure of the nation and to maintain the biodiversity found in the Japanese wilderness.  Most of the focus of wide-scale reforestation efforts have been focused on tropical climate areas like some parts of Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. Among other drivers were urbanization, forest fires, logging, and for shifting agriculture practices.  In a simulation of the deforestation process in the Amazon, researchers found that surface and soil temperatures increased by 1 to 3 degrees Celsius demonstrating the loss of the soil's ability to absorb radiation and moisture. Although China has set official goals for reforestation, these goals were set for an 80-year time horizon and were not significantly met by 2008. , GIS and remote sensing methods can be used to visualize deforestation in a given area. In recent times, the ill effects of deforestation have come to light in the form of various environmental catastrophes taking place all over the world, such as tsunamis, hurricanes and earthquakes. Together they contain approximately 20% of the earth's total flora, or roughly 50,000 separate species. A law promulgated in 1981 requires that every school student over the age of 11 plants at least one tree per year. , The Amazon Fund is aimed at raising donations for non-reimbursable investments in efforts to prevent, monitor and combat deforestation, as well as to promote the preservation and sustainable use of forests in the Amazon Biome, under the terms of Decree N.º 6,527, dated August 1, 2008.  These newer areas are already home to many other species, this combination of species may result in inter-species illness, and may be transmitted to humans. One attempt towards fighting climate change globally is the Reducing Emissions for Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) efforts, and a few countries are already starting to implement and analyze ways to protect standing trees. , Agroforestry or agro-sylviculture is a land use management system in which combinations of trees or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland. Global warming is the hottest issue since the erratic climate change happen all over the world. Consequences of deforestation.  Additionally, a 120-year regression model found that RIL would have a significantly higher reforestation in 30 years (“18.3 m3 ha−1”) in relation to conventional logging (“14.0 m3 ha−1”). The region with the greatest forest loss due to shifting agriculture was sub-Saharan Africa.  Not only does the lumber industry impact local deforestation, but it also impacts the whole environment, as deforestation is a major driver of climate change. Along with other Southeast Asian countries deforestation in the Philippines is a major environmental issue.Over the course of the 20th century, the forest cover of the country dropped from 70 percent down to 20 percent. Farmers in these studies were encouraged to change from a merely subsistence farming system to an intensive “for-profit” farming system where products grown were primarily coffee, oil palm, and cocoa, all for export. Land Use Policy, vol 31, 6 Sept. 2011, pp.  The carbon emitted from the process of converting timber to wood products accounts for 15% of the carbon emissions in the environment. Due to deforestation, animals often lose their habitats and vegetation is significantly decreased. It is displacing native tribes; it is eliminating one of the largest oxygen providers and carbon sinks in the world; and it can even lead to sickness and disease. The Bali Action Plan was developed in December 2007 in Bali, Indonesia. Food problems: Non suitability of deforested area for conservation.  Among the environmental initiatives highlighted were forest management, resource conservation, and mitigating climate change.  It is a direct result of The Kyoto Protocol of December 1997. The annual rate of deforestation in the Amazon region dramatically increased from 1991 to 2003. Restoring trees in deforested places is called reforesting. Researchers Offiong and Ita question whether increased food production through cropland expansion would be possible without resulting in greater climatic impacts. A large contributing factor to deforestation is the lumber industry.  Mass deforestation continues to threaten tropical forests, their biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. Forests are often planted to protect against natural disasters. When the trees burn or rot, the carbon in them returns to the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide. Habitat loss is common when deforestation happens because not only are the trees being cut down, but the land trees previously inhibited suffer extreme soil erosion due to lack of protection from the tree coverage. The most common reason is to clear the land to make farms and ranches. Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography. Effects of Deforestation on Biodiversity. Deforestation is a primary contributor to climate change. Deforestation leads to land erosion because the trees maintain the surface of the mountains. While the geographic zone houses one quarter of the world's forests it has the highest rates of deforestation. In the time it takes to say ‘deforestation’, another chunk of forest the size of a football pitch is destroyed. Deforestation in the Amazon rainforest is a major cause to climate change due to the decreasing number of trees available to capture increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. It is the reestablishment of forest cover either naturally or artificially. When forests are lost, very often the soil they protected is also lost. Agriculture: People living near the rainforests sometimes cut down the trees in order to create farms for the cultivation of crops. Overall, the demand increase is expected to result in greater palm oil expansion which would contribute to further tropical deforestation. When a climate changes, this causes the shift in a species’ geographic range in order to maintain the climactic conditions (temperature, humidity) it is accustomed to. As the development of the country's caused a decline in forest cover, a reduction in biodiversity was seen in those areas.  The most efficient and cost-effective way to combat this is through sustainable forest management practices, afforestation, reforestation, and forest conservation; take together these practices may provide Carbon (C) emissions reductions of up to 25% which will effectively curb climate change. Cattaneo, Andrea (2002) Balancing Agricultural Development and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, Int Food Policy Res Inst IFPRI, 146 pages ISBN 0-89629-130-8 Heil, Gerrit W., Bart Muys and Karin Hansen (2007) Environmental Effects of Afforestation in North-Western Europe , Springer, 320 pages ISBN 1 … As of 2019 , deforestation is responsible fo… , It is also important to note that not all deforestation is as result of agriculture expansion. Modern medicine is another thing affected by deforestation because several medicines are derived from plants found in these areas. This loss of soil is called erosion. If we can reduce deforestation, this would have reduce the 1.1 billion tons which are released from it to the atmosphere every year. Land has other uses besides growing trees. If it’s a new city development, pollution … And even the properly planted trees have had great difficulty surviving the combined impacts of prolonged droughts, pest infestation, and fires. Additionally, livestock contribute high levels of methane emissions, which have an enormous environmental impact. ", "UNEP Billion Tree Campaign Hands Over to the Young People of the Plant-for-the-Planet Foundation", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Deforestation_and_climate_change&oldid=994369091, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing cleanup from August 2020, Cleanup tagged articles with a reason field from August 2020, Wikipedia pages needing cleanup from August 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 10:45. It combines agricultural and forestry technologies to create more diverse, productive, profitable, healthy, and sustainable land-use systems. This partnership is done with the intent of not only repairing damage to the environment but also to provide economic and social benefits to the affected area. , Studies conducted in the Ecuadorian Amazon by Kovacic and Salazar found that deforestation and agricultural expansion not only cause environmental degradation but they do not guarantee the expected economic benefit for the small scale farmers nor for the national economies of governments who are proposing agricultural expansion programs. The loss is more severe in so called primary forests, which are forests that have yet been untouched by humans.  Examples of large forests that have a significant impact on the balance of carbon include the Amazonian and the Central African rainforests. Additionally, cutting down trees plays a role in a positive feedback loop centered around climate change on a much larger scale, as studies are finding.. Most impacts are complex and interrelated, and continuously drive the destructive cycle of deforestation. Slash-and-burn agriculture accounts for about 30% of all global arable land.  As a consequence of reduced evapotranspiration, precipitation is also reduced. The expansion of the palm oil industry and increased demand has resulted in greater deforestation in tropical climatic regions. , In addition to land usage for deforested land being used for plant-based food production it is also fused or also animal-based food production. Scientists say that we’re currently living in the Earth’s 6th mass extinction, … Forests are complex ecosystems that affect almost every species on the planet. Possible methods of reforestation include large-scale industrial plantations, the introduction of trees into existing agricultural systems, small-scale plantations by landowners, establishment of woodlots on communal lands, and rehabilitation of degraded areas through tree planting or assisted natural regeneration. Deforestation is a primary contributor to climate change. ", Relationship between deforestation and global warming, Benefits of reforestation and afforestation, Reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, Human dimension of deforestation and climate change, The ASEAN Declaration on Environmental Sustainability. Malhi, Y., et al. Both require resources and going out requires land, so more deforestation is a very real possibility in this situation. The percentages are 0.6 +/- 0.3% for urbanization, 23 +/- 4% for forest fires, 26 +/- 4% for logging, and 24 +/- 3% for shifting agricultural practices. , UHN developed 17 goals in 2015. Further effects of deforestation include soil erosion and coastal flooding.  In addition, agroforestry helps to preserve and protect natural resources such as controlling soil erosions, creating habitat for the wildlife, and managing animal waste. The farmers then exploit the nutrients in the ashes of the burned plants.  Peatland degradation also emits GHG. Here are few of them. Afforestation is the planting of trees where there was no previous tree coverage. Deforestation is when forests are destroyed by cutting trees (logging) and not replanting them.  Its initial target was the planting of one billion trees in 2007. It is expected that biofuel demands are to surpass the demand for edible palm oil production. The impacts of deforestation. 319, no. Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. It is estimated that the amount of carbon within the Amazon exceeds the ten year's worth of carbon released by human production. When they are degraded, it can set off a devastating chain of events both locally and around the world.Loss of species: Seventy percent of the world's plants and animals live in forests and are losing their habitats to deforestation, according to National Geographic.  If there is more foliage photosynthesizing more CO2 will be absorbed, thereby balancing the potential temperature increases. The word is normally used to describe the actions of humans in removing forests from the planet, rather than destruction caused by such natural events as hurricanes. 30% of the goals had a direct association with the sustainable forestry management objectives. The water level of the rivers increases suddenly, causing floods. The biggest uses of land that was once forested are for farming and ranching. Deforestation also releases sequestered carbon.  Forests are being converted to plantations for coffee, tea, palm oil, rice, rubber, and various other popular products.  Furthermore, soils that are rich in organic decay matter are more susceptible to fire, especially during long droughts. Between 2001 and 2015 only 27 +/- 5% of all forest disturbances globally were for agricultural expansion. Deforestation is the act of clearing a wide area of trees to change the purpose of the land. As a result, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could significantly decrease. Hoang, M. H., et al.  A reduction in area of any habitat, but particularly in forest habitat along with climatic change, enables species invasion and the possibility of biotic homogenization as stronger invasive species can take over weaker species in a fragile ecosystem. That’s every two seconds, every single day. Deforestation & the Effects It Has on a Global Scale. Effects of deforestation on climate change, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Environmental factor#Socioeconomic Drivers, Reducing Emissions for Deforestation and Forest Degradation, Effects of global warming on human health#Deforestation, Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, Climate Change and Land: Summary for Policymakers, "Main sources of carbon dioxide emissions | CO2 Human Emissions", "How the UK contributes to global deforestation", "Forests in the IPCC Special Report on Land Use: 7 Things to Know", https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/blog/2015/09/government-subsidies-for-agriculture-may-exacerbate-deforestation-says-new-un-report/#:~:text=An%20estimated%2080%20per%20cent,a%20new%20United%20Nations%20brief, "A really simple guide to climate change", "How much has the Global Temperature Risen in the Last 100 Years?  Forests cover 31% of the land area on Earth and annually 75,700 square kilometers (18.7 million acres) of the forest is lost. ", https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-05/iifa-waw052520.php, "The Global Forest Transition as a Human Affair", APP & APRIL announces end to deforestation in Indonesia, https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Deforestation&oldid=7178585, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License, maintain the oxygen and carbon dioxide (CO2).  In order to combat Carbon (C) emissions caused by deforestation and forest degradation actions that sequester and store this Carbon must be taken. 1. The repeated cycle of low yields and shortened fallow periods eventually results in less vegetation being able to grow on once burned lands and a decrease in average soil biomass. , In 2020, a team of scientists studied worldwide deforestation efforts and found they were not working. Effects of Deforestation on Climate With so many hundreds of thousands of square miles of forest being cut down each and every year (approximately 46 – 58 thousand), many of the biggest carbon sinks in the world are being shrunk drastically.  With the increased pressure to expand agricultural production this method has been used on a much larger scale then traditional subsistence farming. Land use changes, especially in the form of deforestation, are the second largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions, after fossil fuel combustion. Many other countries and regions are beginning to start or have already started reforestation programs and initiatives in hopes of counteracting global climate change drivers. A total of almost 4 million hectares (9.9×10^6 acres) of timber is harvested each year. Community based forest management (CBFM) is a scheme that links governmental forest agencies and the local community in efforts to regenerate degraded forests, reforest deforested areas, and decrease carbon emissions that contribute to climate change. 48-60. , Reduced impact logging (RIL) is a sustainable forestry method as it decreases the forest and canopy damages by approximately 75% compared to the conventional logging methods. The main area of concern of deforestation is in tropical rain forests since they are home to the majority of the planet's biodiversity. In 2005, parts of the Amazon basin experienced the worst drought in more than a century. Deforestation comes in many forms: wildfire, agricultural clearcutting, livestock ranching, and logging for timber, among others. These include logging, urbanization, mining, and agricultural development.  According to scientific research, plantation forest could absorb more carbon dioxide than natural forest since they grow faster leading to a higher absorbance rate. Global models and national greenhouse gas inventories give similar results for deforestation emissions. In December 2011, after more than 12 billion trees had been planted, UNEP formally handed management of the program over to the not-for-profit Plant-for-the-Planet initiative, based in Munich, Germany. Growing forests are a carbon sink with additional potential to mitigate the effects of climate change.  After the Civil War, Texans began rounding up the cattle and selling northward to states such as Kansas and Illinois. On a local scale, the clearing of forest land can cause a decline in the population of certain species. Deforestation and forest degradation account for nearly 20% of all man-made emissions. With the use of MODIS satellites, specialists can stack satellite images of the given area from multiple dates to see if there is any regression of the forest to help visualize deforestation better. Ecological zones will shift by approximately 160 km per 1 degree Celsius.  Greenhouse gases are emitted during combustion of forest biomass and decomposition of remaining plant material and soil carbon. , Globally there are 18 "hot-spots," each of which contains a unique and biodiverse ecosystem. Reforestation can also help mitigate the effects of soil degradation and pollution depending on the methods of planting, location, and plant species.. The chemical based alterations along with contemporary farming practices would lead to erosion and soil depletion unless continually treated with these substances.  It emphasized the importance of sustainable forest management and conservation practices in mitigated climate change. 1 Deforestation: Causes, Effects and Control Strategies Sumit Chakravarty 1, S. K. Ghosh 2, C. P. Suresh 2, A. N. Dey 1 and Gopal Shukla 3 1Department of Forestry 2Pomology & Post Harvest Technology, Faculty of Horticulture Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari 3ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Research Center, Plandu Ranchi India 1.  The ASEAN Region alone, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, hosts approximately 20% of all of the world's species and accounts for three of the Earth's "hot-spots".  A desire to expand into forest covered lands has resulted in scarred land, displaced species (including humans), larger cities, more emissions, and even illness. Palm oil serves two purposes which are highly in demand for anthropogenic use: edible use and biofuel use. Agricultural deforestation can take different forms, the most salient of which are the commercial plantations in tropical regions.  They work on projects focused on planting trees around campuses, low-income communities, and communities that have been affected by natural disasters among other places. , Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands that have been depleted, usually through deforestation. The vast majority of agricultural activity resulting in deforestation is subsidized by government tax revenue.  We can look in either direction and continue this timeline of damage being caused by the need to expand and accommodate human needs and desires, as most choices will have impacts elsewhere. This subject is usually discussed when looking at the effects it has on the rainforest biome, but it can also occur anywhere in the world when a forest is artificially transformed for another purpose. ", "Tropical Deforestation : Feature Articles", "Deforestation of sandy soils a greater threat to climate change", "Effects of Deforestation | The Pachamama Alliance", "AR4 Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis — IPCC", "Climate change mitigation: A spatial analysis of global land suitability for clean development mechanism afforestation and reforestation", "To what extent could planting trees help solve climate change? – In the Brazilian Amazon it is estimated that 60-80 pe… A degraded forest therefore is unable to store greater amounts of Carbon (C), thus adding to Climate Change. Deforestation is often described as the changing of land from forested to non-forested by means both natural and unnatural.  Whilst efforts have been made to decrease the rate of deforestation in the country, such as increased law enforcement, there is still room for further intervention. The then Billion Tree Campaign was launched in 2006 by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) as a response to the challenges of global warming, as well as to a wider array of sustainability challenges, from water supply to biodiversity loss.  The estimated amount of total land mass used by agriculture is around 38%. These repeated practices would create an unsustainable cycle needed to keep producing expected yields. Deforestation in the rainforest means individual species will become endangered and biodiversity is reduced.  This can help visualize the extent of the forest. Introduct  In Brazil specifically, the jungle has been wiped out in order to house cattle and other valuable agricultural items by means of ‘fishbone deforestation’. , The largest cause of deforestation and acute degradation is agriculture.  Animals' struggle to survive is further hindered due to high temperatures in places where tree coverage is lost. Well-managed forests will have an appropriate natural amount of regeneration to maintain an adequate above ground tree biomass density.  Furthermore, deforestation changes the landscape and reflectivity of earth's surface, i.e. Moreover, this was to proceed with an emphasis on the need to work locally, regionally, nationally, and globally in the sharing and dissemination of environmentally sustainable practices. decreasing Albedo. The carbon substances which can not be converted to oxygen by plants, especially when there no longer many plants around to do so. It is the spread of arid areas caused by a variety of factors, such as climate change (particularly the current global warming) and overexploitation of soil as a result of human activity. The relationship between deforestation and climate change is one of a positive feedback loop. Trees are also important for carbon sequestration.  Specifically, forests hold roughly 471 billion tons of the total carbon emissions in our world. They also cut trees for firewood and lumber and to make room for cities. Deforestation destroys the habitat of many animals, leading to their death.  A 2007 study conducted by the National Science Foundation found that biodiversity and genetic diversity are codependent—that diversity among species requires diversity within a species and vice versa. What about in the future?  This method is not sustainable because the plots can only be tilled for 2–3 years, where after farmers will move to a different plot and repeat the process.  At a global level, deforestation is also known to have an effect on carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere through; Slash and Burn Practices: Used primarily to create agricultural land, it involves the logging of forests and burning debris afterwards. The loss is more severe in so called primary forests, which are forests that have yet been untouched by humans. When it rains, trees absorb and store a large amount of water with the help of their roots. The Main Causes of Deforestation. Burning or cutting down trees reverses the effects of carbon sequestration and releases greenhouse gases (including carbon dioxide) into the atmosphere.  This change in climate has drastic ecological and global impacts including increases in severity and frequency of fires, and disruption in the pollination process that will likely spread beyond the area of deforestation.. This coupled with the increased attention to carbon emission stocks as a way to provide additional resource flows to the developing countries..  This is just one example of the large butterfly effect that human caused deforestation can have on humans. Deforestation poses a grave threat to this biodiversity. Another prevalent method of agricultural deforestation is slash-and-burn agriculture, which was primarily used by subsistence farmers in tropical regions but has now become increasingly less sustainable. Greenhouse gases are emitted during combustion of forest biomass and decomposition of remaining plant material and soil carbon. Besides those, the Amazon Fund may use up to 20% of its donations to support the development of systems to monitor and control deforestation in other Brazilian biomes and in biomes of other tropical countries. Deforestation is linked with CO2 emissions, in part due from crops having a relatively less impressive carbon storage per unit area then wooded areas or forests. Agricultural expansion is one of the worst offenders in when it comes to deforestation in recent times.  In the Northern Hemisphere, 1983 to 2012 were the warmest 30-year period of the last 1400 years.. This page was last changed on 13 November 2020, at 14:04. , Livestock ranching requires large portions of land to raise herds of animals and livestock crops for consumer needs. , Deforestation without reforestation, has negative climatic effects but particularly for agricultural expansion, it creates a scenario for diminishing returns. Some of the effects of climate change, such as more wildfires, may increase deforestation.  However, deforestation disrupts the processes of carbon sequestration and affects localized climates. ANSWER: Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography. Tropical deforestation is responsible for about 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. As more large agriculture companies are taking over the arable lands, more families are moving to large cities in order to find work. Three months before the conference, the 7 billion planted trees mark had been surpassed. 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Make buildings and other things, or roughly 50,000 separate species in environments that previously did not have coverage.
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