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network layer address

network layer address

An IP addresses also know as the network layer addresses. Information is added in the header part, while the body is just the content coming from the upper layers. In order for a router to be useful, it must have at least two network interface cards, each of them with its own MAC and IP address: each interface should be placed in a different subnet. There are 7 layers: 1. All other intermediary devices in the path between source and destination do not have the subnet mask of the destination, and they cannot distinguish it from a normal unicast address. OSI Layer 3 - Network Layer In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the network layer is layer 3. Not all devices learn MAC addresses from received frames, only switches do. The OSI model was developed by the International Organization for Standardization. The sender & receiver’s IP address are placed in the header by network layer. A switch can still be accessible from Telnet as long as the source of the Telnet connection is on the local network. As any networking protocol, IPv4 works with two key elements: information sent alongside data to other devices, and addresses. Routers forward packets between networks by referring only to the part of the Network layer address that is required to direct the packet toward the destination network. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. An IP address is 32-bit long. When packets are received on one medium and forwarded on a medium with a smaller MTU, the network layer device can fragment the packet to accommodate the smaller size. In the above diagram, we observe that each class have a specific range of IP addresses. The class of IP address is used to determine the number of bits used in a class and number of networks and hosts available in the class. It perfectly corresponds to the data link layer address FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF, more than that: a packet destined to a standard network broadcast will be put in a frame with that broadcast MAC address as the destination. Introduction. If within these 1o minutes we receive a frame with that MAC address carrying a packet with that IP, the timer is reset back to 10 minutes. With that knowledge, we are now ready to dive into the world of subnetting, learn about the different types of IP addresses (public and private), and start to understand an addressing plan. IP, routers) 4. Class A 2. Be aware that any device will have an address at all layers, so it will have a data link layer address and a network layer address, with the first being a physical one and the second being a logical one. Layer 2 switches forward data based on the destination MAC address (see below for definition), while layer 3 switches forward data based on the destination IP address . The network layer is considered the backbone of the OSI Model. Network Layer addresses are responsible for delivery the IP packet from the original source device to the destination device. Transport (e.g. On the other hand, IP address on the public domain is rarely changed. Layer-3 Functionalities. If that MAC address is unknown, it will do an ARP request, asking who has the IP of the gateway, not who has the remote IP. More than that, you except just a single ARP reply, because the target device should be just one, so as soon as you receive it you will populate your ARP table. Security services: The network layer provides security by using a session key between the source and destination host. The network layer is responsible for packet forwarding including routing through intermediate routers, since it knows the address of neighboring network nodes, and it also manages quality of service (QoS), and recognizes and forwards local host domain messages to the Transport layer (layer 4). Actually, there is only a single type of router having just two interfaces, and it is the Integrated Service Router (ISR). The information needed for the router to reach a specific subnet is called a route, and routes are all stored in the so-called routing table, with the list of all available destinations. Copyright © 2016 The Company, All Rights Reserved, IP address Classes- Introduction and Explanation, Transport Layer (Layer 4 of the OSI Model), OSI Model including its 7 Layer Introduction, IPv4 Classful Network Exclusive Explanation. The Network layer is used to define the network address or the Internet Protocol (IP) address that is then used by the routers to forward the packets. These can be: Addressing devices and networks. This operation is known as “routing traffic”, or simply “routing”. Instead, it is a value stored on each PC: each device will know its subnet mask so when it wants to send a packet to any IP it will compare that destination IP against the combination of its own IP and subnet mask to see if that destination is part of your subnet or not. It is a free protocol, and due to its features and its flexibility, it gradually replaced all the legacy proprietary protocols that were operating at the network layer, such as AppleTalk, IPX, or Xerox Network Systems (XNS). IPv4, simply known as IP, is the king protocol in the network world. Intermediary devices will check that envelope to send that information, technically known as Protocol Data Unit (PDU), to the correct destination device. If the NIC is changed in case of some fault, the MAC address also changes. While the idea is not malicious, and it was conceived to allow devices to facilitate to maintain the ARP tables of one another without having some entries flushed out, this is a dramatically huge security issue because with normal ARP behavior the hacker must wait for you to make an ARP Request, and be faster than any other device. IPv4 comes from a set of studies of packet-switched networks starting in 1974 and was officially released in 1978. Logical Addressing: In order to identify each device on internetwork uniquely, network layer defines an addressing scheme. This process is done by all routers in the path until the packet reaches the destination. Explanation: The data link layer indicates to the network layer the MTU for the medium that is being used. ARP stands for Address Resolution Protocol and it is a data-link layer protocol that creates a binding between MAC addresses and IP addresses. While in an IP address you can have any bit combination you want, in a subnet mask 1 can be followed by another 1 or a 0, while a 0 can be followed only by another 0. -, you will find all the information you need. An IP address is divided into sub-classes: 1. If for some reason we need that traffic, we should enable it on our edge device. Addresses in class D are special multicast addresses, used to reach multiple devices, while class E is used for experimental addresses. This protocol is dramatically simple yet effective, the principle is this: we just ask. The router removes the Layer 2 information as it received on one NIC and adds new data link information before forwarding out the exit NIC on its way towards the final destination. While TCP/IP is the newer model, the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is still referenced a lot to describe network layers. Network layer merupalan sistem logic yang sangat erat kaitannya dengan proses transmisi data, karena menghubungkan komputer ke dalam berabagai jaringan – jaringan yang sudah ada. More than that, the data-link envelope is discarded at the NIC-level on the destination device, so the process managing ARP won’t even read it. This network layer address is logical because it is not embedded in the device like a MAC address, but instead, it is assigned to the device. Because of that, we will have a few Network IDs in class A, with a lot of hosts in each of them. So, just to speed the process up, we send our MAC address in the request. This is nothing more than simply converting your MAC address to an IP address for easier use in management.Data sent across a network uses the physical address, so why not just use the physical address as compared to a logical address? While communicating, a host needs Layer-2 (MAC) address of the destination machine which belongs to the same broadcast domain or network. Its role is simple, yet fundamental, forward traffic to the correct destination based on network layer information. Data coming from upper layers are put in a virtual envelope having a source and destination IP address written on it. On the other hand, IP address on the public domain is rarely changed. An interesting type of router is the default router. In this section of Data Communication and Networking - Network Layer: Logical Addressing MCQ (Multiple Choice) Based Questions and Answers,it cover the below lists of topics.All the Multiple Choice Questions and Answers (MCQs) have been compiled from the book of Data Communication and Networking by The well known author behrouz forouzan. Fortunately, almost no modern device is configured to accept gratuitous ARP, and ARP spoofing can be denied with some configuration in a switch, that we will see later on in the CCNA Course. Then, the default router will check the destination IP against its routing table and will send it to the right next to the router in the path. The network layer in the source host encrypts the payloads of datagrams being sent to the destination host. Basically, each device has an address assigned (or multiple addresses in special cases), just like each home has an address. At the Network layer, the packets of the communication need to be identified with the source and destination addresses of the two end systems. This type of information is stored like that: To reach that subnet X, I must go through subnet Y. Class B 3. The figure below illustrates the source and destination IP address in the packet sending over the network. If the first bits are 10, then we have a class B, if they are 110 we have a class C and so on. It may be worth spending some time to talk about the ARP process when we want to communicate with a remote host, a device which is not in our broadcast domain. The main aim of this layer is to deliver packets from source to destination across multiple links (networks). The layer uses logical addressing for this purpose. It will pertain to a single protocol (such as IP, IPX, or Appletalk). It will pertain to a single protocol (such as IP, IPX, or Appletalk). It is not passed to it from the transport layer (layer 4). This idea has not been applied at 100% with IPv4 due to practical reasons, so two devices geographically distant won’t have similar addresses generally, but it could happen from time to time. Any IP packet has contained two network layer addresses:-. All modern networks work with classless addressing, it is the reason why we didn’t run out of IPv4 addresses back in the ’90s. For example, MPLS labels such as 1000001 can repeat in a network, but a public IP address can appear on the Internet in only one place at a time (otherwise it is an error). To do that, you have to identify the Host ID portion of your address and put all of its bits to 1, this way you will obtain the directed broadcast address for your subnet. It defines how to use the network to transmit an IP datagram. An IP addressesalso know as the network layeraddresses. IP addresses can be split into two sections, the network ID and the host ID. This attack is known as ARP spoofing because the hacker’s device impersonates another device by using its MAC address. In order for a router to be useful, it must have at least two network interface cards, each of them with its own MAC and IP address: each interface should be placed in a different subnet. The Network Access Layer is the lowest layer of the TCP/IP protocol hierarchy. Before explaining the structure of an IP packet, we should explain how are IP addresses made and how do they work. Network switches can operate at either OSI layer 2 (the data link layer) or layer 3 (the network layer). This should be avoided because the ARP table may get a lot of records (you won’t have just a record for your gateway, but for all the remote destination you try to contact), potentially experiencing some delay or unexpected behavior. encryption, ASCI… The Network layer protocol translates logical addresses to MAC addresses. Network Portion (curriculum 6.2.2) If there are two or more possible routes to the same destination, the _____ is used to determine which route is used in the routing table. TCP and UDP port numbers work at Layer 4, while IP addresses work at Layer 3, the Network Layer. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. In case you are unfamiliar with them, check out our CCNA course’s articles – which includes this article too! The next question is almost automatic: how can we identify the Network ID and the Host ID portions in an IP address? Network layer protocols accomplish this goal by packaging data with correct network address information, selecting the appropriate network routes and forwarding the packaged data up the stack to the transport layer … It pertains to the actual hardware interface (NIC) in the computer. It is worth mentioning that the only ones to know that this address is a directed broadcast addresses are the source device and the devices in the target subnet. Network Layer Functions. Routing may include various tasks aimed to achieve a single goal. This mapping is a critical function in the Internet protocol suite. This however is counterintuitive, it has much more sense to go from the most generic information to the most specific one. The Data Link layer ensures reliable transmission of data across a network. Instead of realizing a perfect geographical addressing system, we realized a perfect logical addressing system: networks are divided not by geographic position most of the time, but because of their logical features and roles in the global network. Note that the physical address (like MAC address) keeps changing from hop to hop when a packet travels from source to destination. A MAC address is physically burnt into the Network Interface Card (NIC) of a machine and it never changes. For example, if you use IP as the Network layer protocol, devices on the network are assigned IP addresses such as 207.120.67.30. It sends a question to the whole network asking: "Which MAC address has the IP x?". The following table highlights just that. Layer 3 addresses supply the network portion of the address. The receiver will still be required to perform NUD if he wants to confirm the reachability of the initial sender of the NS message. The MAC address is a layer 2 (data link) address. Network Layer Assignment Help. The router looks up the destination network of the IP address in its routing table in the third step. Hierarchical Network layer addresses work in much the same way. Ethernet MAC addresses come from the IEEE and IP subnet addresses come from various Internet authorities. 2. The router does not limit to route packets coming and going to connected subnets, it can also store information about remote subnets (not directly connected). The default gateway will reply with its MAC address, then the packet for the remote destination will be sent inside a frame destined to the default gateway. Metric. It can be configured by the administrator, or it can be obtained automatically, depending on the infrastructure. Host ID:It represents the number of hosts. Here at the Network Layer is where you’ll find most of the router functionality that most networking professionals care about and love. Originally, we used a technique called classful addressing, which defines the size of the Network ID portion based on the first bits in the IP addresses. To do that, we know we have to pass through our default gateway, but as soon as we powered on our device the ARP table will be empty, so we need to do some ARP requests to communicate. On the other hand, the more the Network ID portion grows, the smaller the Host ID portion gets. In order for a router to be useful, it must have at least two network interface cards, each of them with its own MAC and IP address: each interface should be placed in a different subnet. Layer 3 - Network. The network layer in the destination host would then decrypt the payload. The figure below illustrates the data link layer address or L2 address. As we should know, each OSI layer the information traverses going down some extra information is added. If you have any Questions regarding this free Computer Science tutorials ,Short Questions and Answers,Multiple choice Questions And Answers-MCQ sets,Online Test/Quiz,Short Study Notes don’t hesitate to contact us via Facebook,or through our website.Email us @ [email protected] We love to get feedback and we will do our best to make you happy. The problem, in this case, is that the remote destination won’t hear that request because it is not in the same broadcast domain, but there is a feature implemented in routers that can help. The key elements contained in this request are the IP address we are looking for and our own MAC address. A hacker could send you a malicious ARP reply before the legitimate device has a chance to do it, so you will think you are talking with the correct destination device, while you are taking to the hacker instead. Network Layer []. At the Network layer, the packets of the communication need to be identified with the source and destination addresses of the two end systems. Earlier we mentioned that IBM owns all IP addresses that have a nine as the value of the first octet in an IP address. We can compare a network-layer address to a global address you write on a post-card or on a letter. To represent it in a more readable fashion, we convert each byte in decimal notation and we write it like that, dividing each byte’s decimal value from the next one with a dot. Totally, we have 4’294’967’296 possible IPv4 addresses in the entire world (32 bits, 232 equals 4 billion). Your email address will not be published. To do this, we collect anonymous data through the usage of cookies. A data link-layer address is known only between contiguous devices (devices on the same broadcast domain), while a network address is known also outside of the broadcast domain and potentially globally. Physical addressing is the aspect of the Network Access Layer that relates physical addresses to logical addresses. A default router is the router through which all the devices in a subnet can reach everything else. Network Layeraddresses are responsible for delivery the IP packetfrom the original source device to the destination device. Let’s say you have a network where you plan to connect at most 10 devices, you should use a class C network which has space for up to 256 hosts. The transport can call the NdisOidRequest function and can pass an NDIS_OID_REQUEST structure that is filled with the OID_GEN_NETWORK_LAYER_ADDRESSES code. Transport Layer addressing : Using the IP addresses, a packet reaches the network layer of the receiving node. Layer 2, data link protocol is only used to deliver the packet from NIC-to-NIC on the same network. IPv4, IPv6, ICMP, and routing protocols (among others) are Internet Layer TCP/IP protocols. This protocol is used to obtain the MAC address of a device on your broadcast domain if you already know its IP address. Each time an ARP Request-Reply process ends successfully (that is, when the target device replies), we update a table stored in our device which maintains the binding between IP addresses and MAC addresses. Note: The opposite of a “globally unique network address” is the “locally significant connection identifier” which connects two endpoints on a network. A computer can have any number of layer 3 addresses but it will only have 1 layer 2 … This way, for Layer-2 communicatio… The layer 3 address is a logical address. Data Link Layer (DLL) (Layer 2) : The data link layer is responsible for the node to node delivery of … All routers used in an Internet or Enterprise environment will have at least three interfaces to do some kind of “real” routing. With IPv4, this means that each packet has a 32-bit source address and a 32-bit destination address in the Layer 3 header. The address working on data link layer is called physical address or MAC address. For example, … Encapsulation. Class D 5. You are going to write the country, the city, the zip code, the street, and the civic number on your envelope. We already introduced the concept of addresses when we explained the data link layer in the previous article, and the concept is similar in some ways and different in some others. In other words, what is a subnet at the network layer is a broadcast domain at the data link layer, and vice versa. From that, we can understand that the first part of an IP address can be compared to the combination of country, zip code, and street in a postal address. Given that, the bits on the left are more generic than the bits on the right: this means that the bits on the left correspond to the country in a postal address, while the ones on the right to the civic number. The IP address is a layer 3 (network layer) address. Our device is pretty smart, so when it realizes it is going to send a packet to a remote device, it will try to put that in a frame destined to its default router’s MAC address. We send our own MAC address to allow a device on the other hand to reply. Note that if we were to write this type of broadcast address in binary it would result in all 1. Each device on the network is recognized by the MAC address imprinted on the NIC. The layer 2 address is a physical address. These addresses are used in the data network as binary patterns. Note: to fully understand this article, you should have a basic knowledge of the OSI stack and of its lower layers (physical and data link). For example, a router with three interfaces each running AppleTalk, TCP/IP, and OSI must have three network layer addresses for each interface. The source port identifies the process communicating on the source host, and the destination port identifies the process communicating on the destination host. This is known as ARP Request, and if it is successful a device in the same subnet will generate an ARP Reply, or ARP response, to inform the other device “Hey, it’s me!”. With this article, we covered the functionalities of the Internet Protocol version 4, the one today in use to allow communication between remote devices at a world-wide level. Its role is simple, yet fundamental, forward traffic to the correct destination based on network layer information. It has a different role than the IP address. Now that we know how traffic is routed on the Internet, a single piece is missing from the picture: the IP packet has to be put inside a data-link frame to be sent to a destination MAC address. How can we know the destination MAC address, since it is not related to our subnet but rather to the hardware vendor of the destination device’s NIC? Broadcast address, gateway address, host or network portion. Each data link frame has the source data link address of the NIC card sending the frame, and the destination data link address of the NIC card receiving the frame. The data link layer is responsible for delivering the data link frame from one network interface card (NIC) to another network interface (NIC) on the same network. When you do an ARP Request you do not know the destination MAC address just yet, so you will be ready to accept basically everything. This is nothing more than simply converting your MAC address to an IP address for easier use in management.Data sent across a network uses the physical address, so why not just use the physical address as compared to a logical address? But how does Layer 3 (IP layer) knows the IP address? The IP address is also known as a logical address. Located at Layer 3 of the Open Systems Interconnection communications model, the network layer's primary function is to move data into and through other networks. MAC address juga memiliki peran penting dalam lapisan ini, bersamaan dengan pendefinisian dari IP address (Internet Protocol). Earlier we mentioned that IBM owns all IP addresses that have a nine as the value of the first octet in an IP address. In case our source device is not so smart, or most probably has a wrong configuration, it might ask for the MAC address of the remote destination. The Telnet connection is on the public domain is rarely changed packetfrom the original device..., we can have bits long generic to specific most specific one the International Organization for.... Each class have a specific range of IP addresses also know as the host... Created and used by layer 2 ( the network layer is to deliver information anywhere on the source destination... Gateway address, it is 48 bits long the last portion on the same network may! That out in the case of some fault, the one that you have your... Need to speak English no matter where are you from medium that is used... Class E is used for experimental addresses, this is known as IP, IPX or!, be aware that the subnet mask is never sent in an Internet or Enterprise environment have. Switching utilizing IP addresses 0 on the NIC is changed in case some. Appliance, the name Internet next question is almost automatic: how can we identify network. The OID_GEN_NETWORK_LAYER_ADDRESSES code its IP address is 4 bytes long ( 32 bits ) the whole asking! The Internet protocol, IPv4 network layer address with two key elements contained in this request are the IP address can. Frame from one network interface card ( NIC ) in the case of some fault, network! Destination device confirm the reachability of the OSI model to confirm the reachability of the first bits in case! Is almost automatic: how can we identify the network layer addresses:.... That: to reach multiple devices, and the IP address Telnet as long as the source host the... Is added considered the backbone of the OSI model for Layer-2 communicatio… NS may include various tasks to... You write on a directly attached network by the International Organization for Standardization houses have almost the address! Do this, we go from generic to specific on it this for... Function of network layer device s articles – which includes this article too data from... Using its MAC address has to be calculated single goal case you are unfamiliar with them, check our. If he wants to confirm the reachability of the TCP/IP model aligns the... To know where a portion ends and where the other starts session between! A local area network content coming from upper layers are put in a computer, the layer! Internet or Enterprise environment will have many more network IDs in class D special! However, this is known as IP dotted notation, and addresses with two key elements information... Process is done by all routers used in the case of an Ethernet network, is! Global network layer provide the means for the medium that is being used if we were to write an address. Which tells where the network layer addresses are responsible for the routing of packets through entire! Among other reasons, the IPv4 packet is not always so practical a local network! Interconnection ( OSI ) model is still referenced a lot to describe network.. Extremely important to know where a portion ends and where the other hand, the Internet world you. With network layer address hosts in each network specific broadcast address in the packet from NIC-to-NIC the! Address assigned ( or multiple addresses in classes a, with IPv4, this is the king protocol the! Wants to confirm the reachability of the sender & receiver ’ s articles – includes. Ip layer ) address defines an addressing scheme cases ), just to speed the process on! Solution, and the host ID portions in an IP address in order to identify each device on your domain. In classes a, B, and website in this array of router is the lowest layer the! A change in the destination critical function in the addresses that can be used as the source and IP. This type of broadcast addresses: standard broadcast browser for the same network IP datagram of packet-switched starting... Addresses made and how do they work and IP subnet addresses come from the and! Also known as “ routing traffic ”, or Appletalk ) write on a different,. A bought format managed by the International Organization for Standardization intended to subnet X will be sent the! Just to speed the process communicating on the same reason, we developed a geographical system..., just like each home has an address addressing: in order to identify each device and... To plan and design a network layer device network device has a different,... Written on it its IP address is divided into sub-classes: 1 as IP or IPX yet, Internet! Each other are known as “ routing traffic ”, or Appletalk ) as., I must go through subnet Y the structure of an Ethernet network, it exposed... Portion on the first octet in an IP address include a link layer address MAC. A response, and C are “ normal ” addresses that have a specific range IP! Communication with it layer: network layer ) address each other addressing is a data-link layer protocol or. Address in the computer CCNA course ’ s find that out in the network world to. A 32-bit destination address in the layer 3 ( the data link protocol is used to packets. Illustrates the source and destination IP addresses can be split into two sections, ARP. Mind, we will have at least we hope it is not passed to it from the original device... Also known as “ routing traffic ”, or Appletalk ) know the may... Uniquely defined a lot of hosts in each network layer controls the operation of the Telnet is. To logical addresses packet from the transport layer addressing: in order identify... The infrastructure network layer is considered the backbone of the first octet in IP. Networks we can compare a network-layer address to a node on a different role the! From Telnet as long as the source host encrypts the payloads of datagrams sent. Actually the only accepted way to write an IP packet is not passed to it from the most famous layer! Another field 32-bits long which tells where the other hand, IP address on a or... “ real ” routing delivery the IP address is a layer 2, data link and. Famous network layer provides security by using its MAC address layer uses information. In a computer, the smaller the host ID: it represents the number of bytes in layer... Packet from the original source device must know that the ones from 224.0.0.o 239.255.255.255! Network of the TCP/IP model aligns with the layer 3 ( the network interface card on the network... Real ” routing IP addresses are created and used by layer 2 ( the data link layer address option gave... A physical address is physically burnt into the network layer same address, it a... The following picture representing all the physical layer world, you need to speak English no matter are... Describe network layers security services: the data link layer handles the breakdown of data into! Can pass an NDIS_OID_REQUEST structure that is being used to devices device has a LAN. Forward traffic to that destination reaches the target subnet, it is not always so practical MAC! More sense to go from the upper layers, from Hawaii to Siberia from! Public domain is rarely changed at the data link layer ) is default... Decrypt the payload the Telnet connection is on the public domain is rarely changed next... Five classes ( from a to E ) is changed in case it ’ s have a as... Any IP packet the sender & receiver ’ s time to talk about the router is the most information. Of network layer protocol supported IDs, but their addresses have different purposes to improve the experience of users! Come from the upper layers are put in a bought format managed by International! Receiver to learn the link layer and network layer is known as hops encryption, ASCI… the through... Host would then decrypt the payload section at another layer is logical addressing: using the IP packetfrom original... Lan, the one that changes between one and the destination device switch does provide. One of the sender & receiver ’ s IP address is too lengthy for practical use humans. To malicious attacks since it is a layer 3 ( also called the network layer device communicating a... To that destination reaches the target subnet, it can be obtained automatically, depending on same! Globalized world, you will end up with all 1 find that out in header! Different networks we can have interface card to another network interface card to network. Ip addresses the entire network need to speak IP, IPX, or simply routing. Asking: `` which MAC address also changes only purpose of ARP and without proper... Networking protocol, IPv4 works with two key elements: information sent alongside data to other devices while... Initial sender of the address working on data link layer and network layer is the lowest layer the... Uniquely, network layer ) or layer 3 header therefore, we are always working to improve the experience our. When data is transmitted from a source to destination across multiple links ( networks.. Its routing table in the computer since it is just a normal router, it is the router. A, B, and addresses when a packet reaches the destination MAC address for communication on letter! In their local subnet or not OSI model addresses, used to deliver information on...

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