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our world in data

our world in data

Doctors, cashiers, bakers and many others have to go to work. These countries suffered a smaller direct impact, but they also limited the indirect impacts because they were able to release lockdown measures earlier. We very much appreciate you taking the time to write. Emissions of ozone-depleting gases have fallen by 98%. Based on this principle we calculate a quality metric for the case counts that answers the question: what share of tests in a particular country confirm a case of COVID-19? How have working hours changed over time, and what do these changes matter for people’s lives? The Lancet, 395(10236), 1527–1529. We have calculated P-scores from the raw weekly death data from the Human Mortality Database in the following way: The Human Mortality Database has data for England & Wales (and Scotland) but not for the UK as a whole. What are their qualifications? However, since the end of WWII the global figures of deaths in wars between states, civil wars, etc., have greatly decreased. Excess mortality is thus a more comprehensive measure of the impact of the pandemic on deaths than the confirmed COVID-19 death count alone. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/13/health/soap-coronavirus-handwashing-germs.html, Kwok, Y. L. A., Gralton, J., & McLaws, M.-L. (2015). Trust is essential for community, wellbeing, and effective cooperation. In this project, the impact of the pandemic will be one of our focus areas as we move forward. 57% are children younger than 5 years old. At Our World in Data we have built new tools & learned a lot in our COVID work in recent months. How many died in war? Hand hygiene: Back to the basics of infection control. Our World In Data is a project of the Global Change Data Lab, a registered charity in England and Wales (Charity Number 1186433). Many countries have high levels of income inequality. 5% of global primary energy production comes from modern renewable sources. To understand the spread of the disease we need to interpret the number of cases – the epidemic curve – in light of how much testing for COVID-19 the country actually does. Current research however suggests that even the worst affected regions are not close to the immunity threshold. For this purpose we track the impact of the pandemic across our publication and we built country profiles for 207 countries to study the statistics on the coronavirus pandemic for every country in the world in depth. www.OurWorldinData.org is a web publication that focusses on the large global problems including poverty, disease, hunger, climate change, war, existential risks, and inequality. 8% are older than 65. Particularly informative is the metric ‘share of positive tests’ – which shows you the share of tests that are confirming a case. You don’t only wear the mask for your own protection. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. Tom Chivers we would like to thank for his editorial review and feedback. But not everyone has access to handwashing facilities. Thank you all. Where does the plastic in our oceans come from and what can we do to reduce plastic pollution? How do people across the world spend their time? Access to education early in life can improve outcomes for the rest of life. COVID-19 developed into a global pandemic. When did access to universities and tertiary education increase? Coal, gas and oil were key to industrialization and rising prosperity, but their large impact on health and the climate mean that we should transition away from these sources of energy. To get the right mindset for your most important job of 2020: Wash your hands like you just cut some chillies and now have to put contact lenses in. Before we get into how to make progress against the virus, let’s think about what we need to avoid. And how does rapid population growth come to an end? Here at Our World in Data we aim to provide a broad perspective on the living conditions of people around the world – from poverty, to education, to human rights, and health more broadly – look at the full list of the topics we work on. Poverty, disease, hunger, climate change, war, existential risks, and inequality: The world faces many great and terrifying problems. How does the number of children vary across the world and over time? These countries had rapid outbreaks, but were then able to reduce the number of deaths very quickly to low numbers. Which ones could we eradicate in our lifetimes and how? Humanity made a lot of progress against big problems before – if you have doubts, read our Short History of Global Living Conditions. Outdoor air pollution is one of the world’s largest health and environmental problems. 303,000 women die from pregnancy-related causes every year. You can find the (long) list of data … Only if we end the pandemic everywhere can we end the pandemic anywhere. In our page dedicated to the mortality risk we explain why it is difficult to answer this question and what we do know – we explain the difference between the infection and the case fatality rate, explain common mistakes in interpreting mortality statistics, and we report the case fatality rate for countries around the world – as always we update it daily. The data on confirmed cases only becomes meaningful when it can be interpreted in light of how much a country is testing. You and everyone else have the same two clear personal goals during this pandemic: Don’t get infected and don’t infect others. In these cases it can be helpful for the government to intervene and set up policies that have the goal to slow the spread of the virus by enforcing physical distance between people. In our entry on smallpox you find the data and research on smallpox – and the history of how it was eradicated. The world population increased from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.8 billion today. What policy makers need to know about COVID-19 protective immunity. An estimated 792 million people have a mental health disorder. Our way of calculating the rate here is slightly different. (2020) – Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pesticides are often used to protect crop yields. American Journal of Infection Control, 43(2), 112–114. Receive our latest publications by email. And we would like to thank the many hundreds of readers who give us feedback on this work every day. A systematic review and meta-analysis by Chu et al. Published 5 June 2020. How did inequality of education change over time? We would like to acknowledge and thank a number of people in the development of this work: Carl Bergstrom, Bernadeta Dadonaite, Natalie Dean, Joel Hellewell, Jason Hendry, Adam Kucharski, Moritz Kraemer and Eric Topol for their very helpful and detailed comments and suggestions on earlier versions of this work. A doctor can help 10,000 patients one after the other, but a doctor can not help 10,000 patients when they are all sick at the same time. The WHO has suggested a positive rate lower than 10% – but better lower than 3% – as a general benchmark of adequate testing.5. This is why we made the global data on testing our focus here at Our World in Data. Among the countries with the highest death toll are some of the most populous countries in the world such as the US, Brazil, and Mexico. Walker, P. G. T., Whittaker, C., Watson, O. J., Baguelin, M., Winskill, P., Hamlet, A., Djafaara, B. Herd Immunity: Understanding COVID-19. The P-scores shown here combine all ages and do not account for differences in mortality risk by age and countries’ age distributions. Science. Your comments,subscriptions and reposts are best encouragement for me. Explore our work on Sanitation across the world. If someone is infected with COVID-19, how likely is that person to die? What is driving the rapid global change? What do governments spend their financial resources on? The impact of COVID-19 and strategies for mitigation and suppression in low- and middle-income countries. Some places are more dangerous than others. Using anonymized data provided by apps such as Google Maps, the company has produced a regularly updated dataset that shows how peoples’ movements have changed throughout the pandemic.1. What does the same chart look like in per capita terms? How did it change over time? In 1820, 94 out of every 100 people in the world lived in extreme poverty. How does their use vary across the world? How does access to education differ between girls and boys. Some countries have not been able to contain the pandemic. Some of us can’t stay home. This rate should ideally be very low. A global epidemic and the leading cause of death in some countries. Prosperity; Health; Education; Political Freedom; Violence; Global Prosperity. But soap and water are the better protection – medical microbiologist Manal Mohammed wrote an excellent summary of how to keep your hands clean. Data sources for the project are varied; each category or "A Visual History" presentation's slide cites its particular sources. Help us do this work by making a donation. The young generation in Africa is much better educated than ever before. The map here shows which measures different countries have currently in place. This ‘natural way’ of immunizing the world population means a large number of deaths – the roll out of a safe vaccine holds the promise that we can avoid these deaths. It is possible to respond successfully to the pandemic. A diverse diet is essential for good nutrition. You can find the (long) list of data sources by clicking on the chart. About. Our World In Data is a project of the Global Change Data Lab, a registered charity in England and Wales (Charity Number 1186433). If you click on several countries you can create a view in which you can compare several countries. The population growth rate is then expected to be close to zero. Here you find the acknowledgements. You can find the complete overview – including a detailed description of each source – in our testing database here. 61 million children of primary school age are not in school. You can of course select other countries too. Patients who suffer from common causes of death – like cancers or cardiovascular diseases – might no longer be able to access their regular care. There really is a wealth of data to explore in Our World in Data, for casual dataphiles, academics researchers, and data scientists alike. In recent decades humanity has been extraordinarily successful in the fight against viruses and bacteria – we found vaccines against diseases that once killed millions every year, we reduced child mortality around the world, and in every region of the world we now live twice as long as our ancestors just a few generations ago. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/05/japan-ends-its-covid-19-state-emergency. In some places people are still lacking light at night, while in other places light became extremely cheap. In this pandemic too, we can hope – but not expect – that science comes to the rescue. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.04.012. (2020, May 26). The OxCGRT researchers also calculate a summary measure of nine of the response metrics called the Government Stringency Index. Schools often do not live up to their promise: in many schools children learn very little. The returns of education have significant impacts on labour supply and skilled workforces. This metric – the positive rate – was shown above on this page. Our global dataset and our research on why testing is key to a successful response to the pandemic: The most important metric is neither the number of cases nor the number of tests, but the metric that brings these two counts together: the rate of tests that confirm a case. • In all our maps you can click on any country to switch to the chart view and see its change over time. Countries in many regions in the world – South Korea, Germany, and Uruguay for example – have shown that it is very much possible to mitigate and even suppress the pandemic. An estimated 2 billion people are deficient in essential micronutrients. 1.6 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution every year. Find out how our work is used by journalists and researchers, Find out how our work is used in teaching. You can help by spreading your knowledge about the pandemic and by teaching others how they can protect themselves and those around them. 620,000 people die from malaria every year. It is these large problems that our work at Our World in Data focuses on. And how does it change over time? Perhaps the most important thing to know about the pandemic is that it is possible to fight the pandemic. Who is emitting greenhouse gases? Japan ends its COVID-19 state of emergency. How does access to school differ around the world? See where it’s used. A fourth way in which everyone can contribute to the fight against the pandemic is in explaining what you know and making it understandable for everyone to follow the three Ws and for society to achieve the big social goals below. Food needs to be affordable for people, and at the same it is a key source of income for one-quarter of the world’s labor force. Beyond the individual level we can join forces to achieve even more. We can see three different ways in which the pandemic has affected countries: While some commentaries on the pandemic have the premise that all countries failed to respond well to the pandemic the exact opposite stands out to us: Even at this early stage of the pandemic we see very large differences between countries – as the chart shows. What determines how large or small the world population will be? How is it financed? In the fight against the pandemic we are in the fortunate situation that what is good for ourselves is also good for everyone else. In adolescence we spend the most time with our parents, siblings, and friends; as we enter adulthood we spend more time with our co-workers, partners, and children; and in our later years we spend an increasing amount of time alone. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2014.10.015, See the CDC ‘How COVID-19 Spreads‘, the ECDC ‘Q&A on COVID-19‘, and the WHO ‘Q&A on COVID-19‘, Chu, Derek K; Elie A Akl, Stephanie Duda, Karla Solo, Sally Yaacoub, Prof Holger J Schünemann, et al. By slowing the pandemic we give scientists more time to develop the technology we all need. Our World in Data. 2.6 million people die from pneumonia every year. Shown in the chart are South Korea and Norway. Life satisfaction and happiness vary widely both within and among countries. It helps us understand the direct impact by capturing deaths caused by COVID-19 that were not correctly diagnosed and reported, for example because no test for the virus was conducted. How have peacekeeping operations and forces changed over time? Our World in Data is free and accessible for everyone. 40% do not have access to clean fuels for cooking. https://ourworldindata.org. The share of people with secondary and further education is expected to grow, but unequally across the world. The world has become much more prosperous, but in some countries incomes remain very low. Access to safe sanitation is essential for reducing deaths from infectious disease, preventing malnutrition and providing dignity. One-third are children under five years old. How does it between boys and girls? In many countries the governments set restrictions that have the same goal of restricting proximity between people – travel restrictions, school closures, workplace closures. But not only islands were able to bend the curve of infections and prevent large outbreaks – Norway, Uruguay, Thailand, Finland, and South Korea are examples. In their successful response to the pandemic Japan has emphasized that the risk of infection is especially high in the “three Cs” – these three Cs should be avoided to reduce the risk of getting infected:18. (2020) – Have deaths from COVID-19 in Europe plateaued due to herd immunity? But just as the chart before that focused on confirmed deaths, it is clear that a rapid, devastating outbreak is not the fate that countries inevitably face. But, as with all big problems, there are many ways to make progress and some of the most important measures are up to all of us. ). Our World in Data focuses on communicating the best research and data that helps us understand and find solutions to the world’s … Now we're applying these lessons to other topics. The aim is to slow the spread of the disease so that we reduce the peak and can care for all – or at least a larger share – of the people that need care. Fighting the pandemic: What can everyone of us do to flatten the curve? Vaccines are key in making progress against infectious diseases and save millions of lives every year. What causes famines? In this project, the impact of the pandemic will be one of our focus areas as we move forward. Working hours for the average worker have decreased dramatically over the last 150 years. The default view on a logarithmic y-axis is helpful to compare the growth rates between countries: on a logarithmic axis the steepness of the line corresponds to the growth rate. Cooperation is the strength of our species and our most promising strategy to make progress against the pandemic is the global collaboration in science, technology, and political organization. In many parts of the world famines have been common in the past. How are demographic, economic, technological changes affecting the future of global education? The emission of ozone-depleting gases are threatening the earth’s ozone layer. The data for Brazil, Mexico, the United States, Panama, India, South Africa, and Nigeria shows that these countries test little relative to the size of the outbreak. The reason to stay home is not necessarily that you are scared for your own health, but to protect those who need to be out. Global collaboration and regulation aims to reduce the emissions. Light at night was once expensive everywhere. To not infect others your goal is to prevent the virus from traveling from your body to the mouth, nose or eyes of somebody else. How do learning outcomes differ between countries? By Charlie Giattino and Esteban Ortiz-Ospina, Over the last decade the annual number of deaths due to natural disasters was, Over the last decade the annual number of battle-related deaths was, Over the last decade the annual number of deaths due to terrorism was. Our World in Data switches to Johns Hopkins University as our main data source for COVID-19 cases and deaths To continue providing daily updates on the Coronavirus Pandemic, Our World in Data has switched from ECDC to Johns Hopkins University as our data source for confirmed cases and deaths. Our World in Data. Who consumes the most alcohol? But data is not enough. To capture both of these are ongoing efforts of our work. See the work of our colleague Joe Hasell who looked at this in detail. How can famines be averted? How do excess mortality P-scores compare when grouping by age? We know how to slow the speed of infection and flatten the curve. And what are the implications for animal welfare and the earth’s environment? It is therefore the entire world that needs to make progress against the virus if we want to prevent a situation where countries either need to lock themselves off from the rest of the world or suffer recurring COVID-19 outbreaks. We hope that we convinced some of you that we don’t have to accept a fast pandemic as our fate. Countries are grouped into four categories: Note that there may be sub-national or regional differences in restrictions. Obesity has been linked to COVID-19 as a potential risk factor. The measles vaccine was found relatively rapidly: it took only 10 years from the discovery of the pathogen to the development of the first vaccine. The speed at which the first COVID vaccines were developed was extraordinary. Countries vary in which test count they report. Meat is an important source of nutrition for people around the world. Accurate data is critical when making decisions. We have previously looked into the history of vaccine development. Workers in richer countries tend to work fewer hours than workers in poorer countries. Additionally these countries report unfortunately still very high daily case counts – their lines are red and far from zero. Healthcare funding is essential for good health. Interpreting and using mortality data in humanitarian emergencies. This new dataset from Google measures visitor numbers to specific categories of location (e.g. The pandemic will come to an end when the world population has immunity against the disease. Access to electricity and clean cooking fuels are vital for a good standard of living and good health. The point of this work is to understand those countries so that the rest of the world can learn from them. Why is urbanization happening and what are the consequences? How did the causes of death change over time? But in this chart – as in many of our charts – you can switch to a linear axis – just click on ‘Linear’ in the top left. Obesity is responsible for 4.7 million premature deaths every year. It means no hugging, no handshakes, and staying at least 2 meters (6 feet) from others. And how did it change over time? We will always indicate the original source of the data in our documentation, so you should always check the license of any such third-party data before use and redistribution. If you prefer to adjust for the differences in population size you can switch to per capita statistics by clicking the ‘per million people’ tickbox. Please consult our full legal disclaimer. To properly monitor the impact of the pandemic we would need metrics that are unfortunately not available: the total number of deaths due COVID-19 and the metrics that capture the many ways the pandemic indirectly impacts our lives. How much time do people across the world spend working? What is the impact? Other island nations were also able to almost entirely prevent an outbreak (like Taiwan, Australia, and Iceland). The global average life expectancy is 73 years. Pages in category "Our World In Data" The following 200 pages are in this category, out of 515 total. We have previously written about how the importance of hand-washing was discovered in the 19th century and how it contributed to the large decline of maternal mortality since. To our world in data '' the following 200 pages are in the future use of in... Shows how many secondary infections we can expect from each infection on the planet data and charts an... Prevent the spread of the world win the fight against extreme poverty young in! To function today, the number of cases eradicate in our COVID work in recent decades, with! Development that captures health, education and living conditions small droplets produced by,! Over time several estimates for the rest of life education is growing across the world are the consequences campaigns was. Widely enough to be able to almost entirely prevent an outbreak ( like,. Future progress this article we explore data on loneliness and social connections and well-being cashiers bakers! 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